Brewing Glossary
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maillard reactions
Complex chemical reactions of carbohydrates and amino acids which occur during the roasting of malt. Responsible for the production of melanoidins and many different roasted flavors. Also called maillard browning.
 
malt
Barley that has been processed for the purpose of converting the insoluble starch to the soluble substances and sugars. Three factors determine the quality of malt: 1-its protein content must be as low as possible, 2-its starch content must be as high as possible, 3-its germinative power must be superior.
 
malting
The process of converting barley into malt. The process is divided into three stages: 1-steeping the barley in water until a designated moisture content has been reached, 2-germinating the wet barley under controlled conditions, 3-kilning the germinated barley (green malt) to dry it and/or roast it.
 
malt extract
Concentrated preparations of wort. Available as syrup or powder, in a wide range of colors, hopped or unhopped.
 
maltodextrin
Purified long-chain unfermentable sugar (dextrin). Used as an additive in extract beers, to add body. Isomaltose, amylodextrin
 
maltose
A disaccharide of two glucose molecules, and the primary fermentable sugar obtained from mashing malt. One-third the sweetness of sucrose.
 
maltotetraose
An unfermentable polysaccharide or dextrin consisting of four molecules of glucose derived from mashing.
 
maltotriose
A slowly fermentable trisaccharide consisting of three molecules of glucose derived from mashing.
 
marzen
Type of German lager brewed in March for consumption during Oktoberfest. Slightly darker and stronger than standard pale lager.
 
mashing
The process of enzymatically extracting and converting malt solubles to wort. Mashing involves combining crushed malt grain and water at various temperatures to induce enzymatic activities.
 
mash in
The combination of crushed grain with water in the mash tun to form a solution. See doughing in.
 
mash schedule
The temperature schedule for rests are used to activating desired enzymes in mashing. Examples are mash in, acid rest, protein rest, saccharification rest and mash out.
 
mash out
The final stage of decoction and step mashing. During the mash out the mash temperature is raised to 168 °F (76 °C) and allowed to rest for five minutes. This procedure is used to terminate enzymatic activity and to improve the flow of the sugar solution during lautering.
 
mash tun
A vessel used to hold the grain and water mixture during the mashing process. Mash tuns come in a variety of styles to accommodate various mashing methods. Usually fitted with false bottoms allow for use as combination mash/lauter tuns.
 
mead
Wine made from honey, sometimes with the addition of malt, fruit, spices, etc.
 
metallic flavor
Caused by exposure to metal or from minerals in the water. Also described as tinny, coins, bloodlike.
 
melanoidins
Group of complex color compounds formed by heating sugars and starches in the presence of proteins. Created in brewing during grain roasting and wort boiling.
 
milling
Term for grain grinding or crushing.
 
millival
Measurement of chemicals or minerals expressed relative to actual numbers of molecules rather than weight. This allows calculations of equivalent amounts involved in reactions, which can then be converted back to actual weight.
 
modification
The degree to which malting has been allowed to breakdown proteins and starch during the process of germination. More modification means less nitrogen, and more accessible starch. Also as the grain is modified the hard steely endosperm becomes friable or mealy.
 
mole
Gram-molecular weight. The sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms of any molecule, in grams.
 
monosaccharide
Simple sugars, such as glucose, having only one sugar unit.
 
mouthfeel
Sensory qualities of a beverage other than flavor, such as body and carbonation.
 


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